Saturday, 20 December 2014

Econ 2014: Price Increase Inflation Rate 4%

The innate gusto for Jollibee is one of a sign of being a true Filipino, who will not be familiar with the crispy Chicken Joy, Jolly Hotdog, and the sweet-style Jolly Spaghetti. Common knowledge that many Filipino parents chose to hold their kid's birthday celebration in the said fast food chain, no doubt the mascot appears to be way more appealing to kids, while the “Bida Sa Saya” (Champ of Happiness) dance move serves as a bonus point. Sentimental value wise, Jollibee has a huge portion of the pie when it comes to Filipino tradition; despite, it is beyond noticeable and felt in the pocket how much price increase they incurred, especially 4th quarter of 2014.

To understand the probable causes of Jollibee's Stock Keeping Unit (SKUs) or items price increase, not only in nominal, but incremental phase within the period of 12 months. First, we have to visit Philippine economic performance, especially the inflation rate, and how it currently impacts every Filipino's purchasing power capacity. This discussion will be divided into two (2): 1. Philippine historical inflation rate; 2. Labor and Unemployment rate.

A. Historical (Philippine Inflation Rate):
Year 2012
Year 2013
Year 2014

There is an obvious substantial increase, 1.20% difference would tell that last year Filipino buys than this year. Either the amount of salary/wage is more than enough to cover basic needs and capable to purchase items that are considered luxury and not needs. Next question will be: what are the causes of sudden increase of inflation rate?

  1. Market Power is Monopolistic in character, they have an absolute control to dictate, especially with basic commodity items like food.
  2. Demand Pull. Basic in the law of supply and demand, when there is an increase in the latter, it is to translate price increase. For example; price of candles increased 5x when Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) wrecked Philippines and there was an electricity shortage. While this theory holds true with regard to seasonal items. For example, Christmas premium items. Keep in mind that business is business, profit and not charity is being measured.

B. Unemployment is nominal transition:
Year 2012
Year 2013
Year 2014

The 0.10% difference among YR 2013 and 2014 implicitly provides that government hasn't done much effort to alleviate unemployment issue, although historical wise, this has been a perennial concern. Looking more into perspective, unemployment doesn't impact inflation rate, if it does, only on a minimal level. Therefore, if it's not the unemployment rate, then it may be the nature of employment, meaning a large portion of workers are engaged into labor force earning minimum or less.

CIA FactBook classify Philippine Labor Force into:

According to CIA FactBook: Philippine has 57,064,162.40 million population. Based from the graph above, 54% is employed in Services, either be professional or white collar jobs. The figure translates that the amount of salary for which Services sector provide are in minimum. If not, the salary is not sufficient to compensate the need to battle inflation rate, therefore, people save more, buy less, less economic activity.

The sudden local commodity price increase is not of Jollibee alone, but some other fast food chains, McDonald and Tokyo Tokyo. Since these food chain companies are competitors then we may ignore the fact of want of Market Power or Monopoly. Moreover, Jollibee Foods Corporation's (JFC) issued net sales report last September 30, 2014 is "PHP 21,014,040,701"1 and increased in "Operation Income (OI) PHP 1,408,864,704"2 despite, a healthy and increased in OI, the company is struggling with 4% inflation rate, hence a price increase.

2 ditto

Additional Reading:
John T. Harvey, What Actually Causes Inflation (and who gains from it). 5/30/2011

Monday, 7 July 2014

YahooPHShe #Friends4Ever: Sherizza Raquel

*The questions (all that are in Bold Purple) are Yahoo Philippines - She section's copyrigh, no infringement or unfair competition intended. Ditto, "#Friends4Ever" is YahooPhilippines-She's ownership, no copyright intended.

Tell us About Your Friend (Name, Age, Occupation):
Sherizza and Denise Leedom
My friend’s name as written in her birth certificate is Sherizza: But, a lot of times her name can be bizarre (Chorizzo = a tasty processed meat in the market), usually misspelled when spoken \Charis-se or Charis-sa\. On the same weight, we call each other funny names, instead of Maech, why not \Mu-cho\. In Spanish means “more” or “very much”; however, I took it with awe because it sounds like a dog-pet-peeve-name that sounds so hairy and wild-barking-shitzu.         
What is your friendship story:
Our friendship is simple; sometimes we don’t like each other, shares different interests to a point where, don’t think we have anything in common. Confrontation is where we both good at, she never tolerates my mistakes, and open to one another’s criticism. We never judge each other; we both knew and accepted that neither of us is perfect.

What’s funny? It’s an instinct we developed to protect one another.

Tell you frankly, the scariest climax of our story is the “end”, because we may outgrow each other. Remember, the antonym of forEVER is OVER. Good thing, Prestine would ring-a-bell and reminds me, “It’s just in the head.” How could it be forgotten, 20 years old was when I stupidly swam from cold to hot-warm pool that literally caused me “nosebleed”, should have been a traumatizing experience, but “Chorizzo” was there who stopped it (without panicking). Promised that will never, ever ride a roller coaster, yet tried it once and thought the ride wasn’t bad (AT ALL) as imagined.

Obviously, I’m scared of nothing, we’ve undergone so much that today and tomorrow is only a test.      

What do you love about him/her:
The baby in the middle is now 5-year old. 
My friend could do a descent part-time, an artist, “crying-lady.” Carlo arrived from Qatar or Oman (5 years ago) without her knowing, he called her while being in the office, and she started weeping using her PINK hanky (because of extreme happiness). Oh! That day, she was sporting a PINK stripe-py headband too. People thought of her outspoken, first honours in the noisy list, someone who doesn’t when to pause.

In real life, she loves her daughter (Arcee) more than herself. Believe when she said, will do everything for her. It is one of the thing I could give her a trophy, “Best Mother Award.”      

Tell us something about yourself:
In my next life, it is my prayer to be a singer like Sarah Geronimo, or a clothes designer. My innate fascination with foreign languages confused my real allegiance / citizenship, sometimes, thought to be Chinese, or Japanese, or Korean. However; my brown passport would bring me back to reality, guess what, I’m not ashamed neither would sell my identity. Envious with Jolo Estrada’s Blue / Diplomatic passport, wish to have one of those too (take this satirical or otherwise, your choice, no malice intended).        

Sherizza's wedding and we're complete, L to R: Sheriz, Maech, Sabs, Pres, and Carlo 

Sunday, 6 July 2014

"The One" Does Not Exist. Mum's Pure Love.

Photo credit:
Some of us, sure to feel that “butterfly in the stomach” at tender age, in other words, Prep school. Prep school, that’s approximately 5 to 7 years old? Love, romantic love, in my opinion is one of the easiest and earliest things that a kid “understood” and “learned” in their environment. Crush is admiration, isn’t it; however, girls by nature tend to enjoy a bewildered imagination, like hanging out, walking on the beach, partying or able to hold hands with crushes. That is where the story get so wrong, because, even a high school could already imagine a wedding and a forever with significant others.

A lifetime commitment is never an easy choice; not a typical grandeur, magical proposal version of, “will you marry me?” engagement ring on a wine glass or sunset on a beach. They look good on picture and videos but in real-life story, no more changing of hearts and minds, it’s the ultimate-finale decision.

Tell you what, being a mother is not an easy role / shoes to fill.
My age is beyond legal, could marry tomorrow without parent’s consent (18-21) or advice (21-25). Don’t blame me if walking in the aisle scare me even more and caused chills in the spine. Someone told me before: “You will never be prepared until you get there.” That’s right. Or, maybe, being a mother is not a “privilege” for every woman out there, because it entails unwritten obligations to fulfil a task to build a healthy and productive nation.

Mum is a “SUPER-MUM”, not the “light of the house”, but the “lawyer” of the family who defends us to all our life trial. She is emotionally the strongest; imagine listening to a problem of 4: herself, Dad, Me and my little brother. Remembered to mention her once, it is not easy to be a mother of an ambitious family, when everyone is working hard to get things done. Consequently, my brother’s stamina is intermittently good and bad. When he was little, detouring a lot in several hospitals is not new, until today, it is Mum who holds his hand in every blood extraction. Her prayers and rounds of rosary make us literally survive this crazy-wonderful called life.

Neither it’s easy for her to hush the weep of the daughter for the latter failed to place in the competition. Figuring-out countries’ politics, so she could update through SMS, just because, it was her innocent intention of making sure everyone’s on the loop and not ignorant of what’s going on in the Country. Someone who never judged why her daughter a vegetarian, in fact nobody in the rest of the family is. A point where, I have no religion, my parents does not push or sanction to make me believe, rather their sincere faith makes me believe, there is God because parents LOVE me “unconditionally.”

Dad is a jewel for falling in-love with mother and made her said YES. Her role to each and every one in the family is pure. I couldn’t say, “I Love You, Mum”, uttering it is stating the obvious. Mum never ask for anything in exchange, a salty and oily fried rice, a not-so-well-done massage in the hand and back are enough, to her, she knew that our love for her too is unconditional. Daddy, please don’t get jealous that I write for Mommy, at any rate, we’re always on the phone chitty-chatty.   

Ladies, please serve this as a good reminder, including myself. Imagination although is our nature, be careful to what we exactly you wish for, for there is really no “the one”. It is you who will choose who is “the one” that will be your lifetime partner, someone whom will brave all the problems and issues that will come along. Having a child is another story, it requires a responsible parenthood, who said it’s okay to eat junks, or crying whenever baby fall sick. Good luck! 

Apparently, Poor Quality Muntinlupa Overpass?


To: Officials of Muntinlupa City

Dear Sir/Ma’am:
Here is to air my grievance regarding the “overpass” near Montillano Street connecting South Station and Festival Mall.

It was my bona fide intention to not commit “Jaywalking”, so I decided to use overpass rather than crossing the highway despite heavy downpour. To my dismay, the quality of the material used to build it is NOT totally SAFE at all. (Reminder: It’s rainy season) Particularly the “flooring” where people walk-by, I am no material engineer, but based on my experience passers-by could immediately slide or tripped themselves, even if with how much due care and diligence has been observed upon, the floor’s material is extremely SLIPPERY.

Kudos to former Mayor whom initiated that project, at one hand, it seems to be under budget. There is no roof; a lot of thieves are roaming around, several police reports on harassments, bags and phones snatching. Should not LGU’s role to protect the people, latter as taxpayers and have legal standing, most importantly holds allegiance to the government.

The scariest part, each of the ladders has approximately 34 steps: Every 17th, the floor is not cemented, instead they chose that slippery-roof type of material. Was that supposed to be a design to beautify? Well. It didn’t serve its purpose. Because, seriously, do you really want people to slide from 18th floor down to the 34th and cause unwanted accident.

Assuming but not conceding. Not because, ordinary people uses that overpass does not mean we should take the quality of its materials for granted. It’s not enough to have an overpass if to compromise, nonetheless, the individual’s safety. Remember, every Filipino citizen hold an allegiance to the government. Everyone pays, if not income tax, then VAT (aside from those who practices tax evasion). So please, let’s observe that basic so-called, symbiotic relationship, between the citizen and the government. To those who may be asking for evidence, you can try passing-by that overpass during heavy rains.  

*No malice intended, this is to exercise Freedom of Speech and Expression as a Filipino citizen. PBME vs PBMC Inc & CIR, GR No. L-31195: “In the hierarchy of civil liberties, the rights of free expression and of assembly occupy a preferred position as they as essential to the preservation and vitality of our civil and political institutions; and such primarily gives these liberties the sanctity and the sanction but permitting dubious intrusions.”

Friday, 30 May 2014

Arellano Law is TOP 5. Conflicts of Law (2014).

Conflicts of Law is an annual simultaneous activity all through-out Philippines. An activity lead and hoisted by the Association of Law School of the Philippines (ALSP). This competition do vary from sports ie. basketball, volleyball, cross-fit (you read that right) to debate. 

Image copyright attributed
 to its owner
Last February, Arellano University - School of Law sent two (2) contingents and adjudicators, whom are members of Arellano Law Forensic Guild (Debate Society). Team A was composed of: Edward Chan, Engr. Jhez Salvador, and Maech Medina. Team B was composed of Micah Gimelo, Avvy Alba, and Christian. In the same light, adjudicators are Krisha Abuella (head of ALFG) and JP Nanit. 

It was such a great and challenging debate, a total of 3 rounds in one (1) day, all topics that were given for veto were all legal. First round was criminal, second is a mix of torts (government taking responsibility), and lastly civil law (grounds for legal separation).

Arellano Law - Team A: score was 2:1 (Team A made it to Top 5 and to represent in Dakak, National Debate competition)
Image copyright attributed to its owner. 
Ed Chan was delivering his DLO speech. This is a 2nd debate round with San Beda Mendiola - Team A (Voltaire, Victor Baguilat, and Kim). Adjudicator is Nicky from UP Dilimian. 
1. Government side, MLQU - Team A vs Opposition, Arellano - Team A (won the round) 
2. San Beda Mendiola - Team A (won the round) vs Arellano - Team A 
3. San Sebastian - Team A vs Arellano - Team A (won the round)
*As to speaker's score, Ed Chan made it to Top 10, Jhez got the next, then Maech - no speaker's score is lower that 75%. 

Arellano Law - Team B: 
1. Arellano - Team B vs Ateneo - Team A
2. Arellano - Team B vs UST - Team B
3. Arellano - Team B (won the round) vs San Sebastian - Team B 

JP Nanit did give his oral adjudicatory round, while krisha broke as adj. and made it to the final round panel - UP - Team A vs Ateneo - Team A.

Below note is copied from ALSP National Convention:  
" Congratulations to the top 5 law schools who shall represent the NCR Region for the 1st ALSP National Debate Competition!

1. University of the Philippines
2 Ateneo de Manila University
3. San Beda College - Mendiola
4. De La Salle University
5. Arellano University

The 1st ALSP National Debate Competition is a pioneer event in honor of the 25th Founding Anniversary of the Association of Law Students of the Philippines which shall be celebrated during the 2014 Annual National Convention on April 25-27 at Dapitan City, Zamboanga del Norte." Source: ALSP National Convention, link:

Congratulations Arellano University - School of Law and Arellano Law Forensic Guild (ALFG) for such a great and hard work! 

Would like to take this opportunity too to extend our THANK YOU to Arellano Law Student Council for such a heartwarming and overwhelming support, to Maureen Patajo (SC President) and Rootbeer Napiza!!! Thank you, and thank you!!! 

Sunday, 4 May 2014

Sextortion and Data Privacy Act of 2012

"The Messiah" Million Mask March. 
Image is not my property but of

The New Millennium drives modernization into a 360 degree change of lifestyle. Remember last year when Webster and Merriam add “Selfie” into their family; social media is the newest and purest description of the new community’s norm. Philippine social network providers were actively promoting and marketing from a downscale network connection through router applicable for machines; for example, computers and laptops. While now, an upscale data connection through “mobile data connection”, so long that the handset to be used is supported by 3G, Android, Blackberry, or some other various IOS, not to mention some infrastructure offers free WIFI connections. Therefore a hindrance no more to access internet, as Globe put it into words, “Anytime, Anywhere.” Easy access to internet means a 24/7 live personal updates through Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter where account users freely post their utmost recent location and activity at which is tantamount to an absolute relinquishment of personal right to privacy. Posting private phrases and images is synonymous to the legal word, “consent.”  

            There are two (2) questions left to be answered: 1. Is there a problem with the status quo, easy access to Facebook, Twitter, and Instragram. 2. How will the legislative body protects the citizen, is there a law that punished cybercriminal acts?

            Answer to point No. 1: A Seventeen (17) year old mechanic in the name of Daniel Perry took his own life by jumping off the bridge in Scotland, July last year, for he was one of the victim of “sextortion.” Statutory construction provides a literal meaning, Sextortion, a combination of words pertaining to sex and extortion. How does this works: “The sextortionists’ basic ploy is to use an attractive female image that is to send a “friend request” to be added on Facebook (or some other form of social media, but Facebook is popular). The two will start talking and she becomes “very interested” in the male. Once they seem to be getting along, the female will ask the male to use some form of video chat program (Skype is very common) and then they will continue talking. Afterwards, the female will ask the male to do “illicit” acts in front of the camera which will be recorded and used as a blackmail to transfer several amount of money to a particular Bank Account.”1 The suspects will not only demand money transfer once, it may be as frequent as three (3) times. By the statistics provided, these males were only triggered to report the crime of extortion during the 5th demand despite threat to life.

            Sextortion has becoming a “borderless” crime; for example, in the case of Daniel Perry, the sextortionist were captured in Manila, Philippine jurisdiction, while he took his life in Scotland. The parents of Perry will file a case for the three (3) Filipino sextortionist whom were capsized in the Philippines. Due to the rampant existence of the crime, May 03, 2014, was when several hoax established were raided by Philippine local police district in Naga City. One of these establishments is in the name of “Digital Mind”, they were claiming that they do only sell books and perfumes through online, thus, they are innocent of the crime and shouldn’t be punished. Even the International Police (Interpol) has been alarmed for an increasing number of victims in worldwide, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United States and etc. Philippines is vulnerable to this kind of crime as to quote the words used by Interpol: “Easy access to the Internet, a relatively lower risk of arrest and big financial gains have caused such crimes to flourish in recent years in countries such as the Philippines.”2 A comparative analysis of the type of government: democratic versus socialist country. China was yet mentioned to be one of the sextortion victims for their government restricts or prohibits access to social media like Youtube and Facebook, instead they create their own local Network Social Provider, is relatively well track by the Chinese government to ensure the Country is not well influenced by the West. While, Philippines as a democratic country do exercise Freedom of Expression by actively posting their thoughts may it be blatant or may cause threat to national security and the government does not have enough technical means not to police but regulate network social provider.    

            What is a right of privacy? Gamboa vs Chan, GR No. 193636 cited the case of Morfe vs Mutuc which provides: “Liberty is the constitutional sense must mean more than a freedom from unlawful government restraint; it much includes privacy as well, if it is a repository of freedom. The right to let alone is the beginning of all freedom.”3 In the same case, a Language of Professor Emerson was cited as well: “Basic distinctions between absolute and limited government. Ultimate and pervasive control of the individual, in all aspects of his life, is the hallmark of the absolute State. In contrast, a system of limited government, safeguards a private sector, which belongs to the individual, firmly distinguishing it from the public sector, which the state can control. Protection of this private sector – protection, in other words, of the dignity and integrity of the individual has become increasingly important as modern society has developed.”4

            Answer to point no. 2: Year 2012 was when allegedly a sexual videos of Hayden Kho and Katrina Halili was uploaded to the so-called, Youtube. Year 2013, two (2) videos – one of which was allegedly Chito Miranda of Parokya Ni Edgar, and Wally Bayola were separately uploaded on the same medium. Publicity and media provides that “someone” have accessed to their personal files and have them uploaded. If someone have uploaded their personal illicit video or picture into their Facebook account and had them secured through a “private” setttings, what if by any means, someone crack and hack their accounts and those private photos had been uploaded. Does his “private settings in Facebook” tantamount to waiver of rights of privacy? Should the Data Privacy Act be limited to personal information recorded in various government agencies such as but not limited to Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), Social Security System (SSS) and among others.

            Congress enacted a statute, Republic Act No. 10173, An Act Protecting Individual Personal Information in Information and Communications Systems in the Government and the Private Sector, Creating for this Purpose a National Privacy Commission, and for other purposes. The intent of the law is Nobel as the Declaration of the Policy states:

SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy – It is the policy of the State to protect the fundamental human rights of privacy of communication while ensuring free flow of information to promote innovation and growth. The State recognizes the vital role of information and communications technology in national building and its inherent obligation to ensure that personal information in information and communications systems in the government and in the private sector are secured and protected.

While, letter (g) of Section 3 of the same provision states:

(G) Personal Information – refers to any information whether recorded in a material form or not, from which the identity of an individual is apparent or can be reasonably and directly ascertained by the entity holding the information, or when put together with other information would directly and certainly identify an individual.

            Aforementioned awhile back, the intent of the law is highly commendable, yet do we have the right and appropriate means to technically achieve the protection required by the citizens. President Noynoy Aquino signed an approximately P2 Trillion amount of governmental budget. If the budget for system improvements will be under Department of Social Welfare and Development, the allocated portion is about “P56.2 Billion.”5 How much will be allocated for the improvement projects of the infrastructures when Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the top priority before system enhancements.

Secondly, the public issue on Malampaya Fund and Philippine Development Assistance Fund (PDAF) is strong message of Bureaucracy and Red Tape in the government processing of documents. In the case of businessmen and taxpayers these private and or personal information are critically detailed from place of business, if none then habitual place of residence to acquire jurisdiction in case to commit a crim for subpoenas. These informations can be easily sold by a government employee in exchange of money.

Despite the fact a government employee may be terminated from work through administrative, civil, and criminal charges, yet many are still succumb to the Red Tape scheme. As one article simply put how simple transaction works: “All applications and/or requests submitted shall be acted upon by the assigned officer or employee during the period stated in the Citizen’s Charter which shall not be longer than five (5) working days in the case of simple transactions and ten (10) working days in the case of complex transactions from the date the request or application was received. “Simple Transactions” refer to requests or applications which only require ministerial actions on the part of the public officer or employee, or that which present only inconsequential issues for resolution by an officer or employee of said government office. On the other hand, “Complex Transactions” refer to requests or applications submitted by clients of a government office which necessitate the use of discretion in the resolution of complicated issues by an officer or employee of said government office, such transaction to be determined by the office concerned.6
            Provided, further, which social network provider shall be maintaining these private or personal information. Republic Act No. 8792, Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 defines Service Provider as:

1.      “On-line services or network access, or the operator of facilities therefore, including entities offereing the transmission, routing, or providing of connections for online communications, digital or otherwise, between or among points specified by a user, of electronic documents of the user’s choosing; or

2.      The necessary technical means by which electronic documents of an original may be stored and made accessible to a designated or undesignated third party. Such service providers shall have no authority to modify or alter the content of the electronic data message or electronic document received or to make any entry therein on behalf of the originator, addressee or any third party unless specifically authorized to do so, and who shall retain the electronic document in accordance with the specific request or as necessary for the purpose of performing the services it was engaged to perform.”

As stated by the definition above Philippines has two (2) major contenders for bidding: PLDT (including Smart and Sun) and Globe. If either of these private sectors will be chosen as government service providers, can they access the private files too?

Philippines, among others of the Asian governments like Singapore where the government’s site was once vulnerable to cracking and hacking by the so-called “The Messiah.” The Messiah is a group of anonymous men who wore a mask to incite to stage various picketing and rallies in Manila (Million Mask March) and in Singapore. Facebook and Twitter were the means that was used to incite rally in places within Metro Manila.

The message that was generating on the screen was: “The government, in many ways, has failed its Filipino citizens. We have been deprived of things which they have promised to give; what our late heroes have promised us to give. Let us remind the government that fairness, justice and freedom are more than words. They are perspectives.”7

Aforementioned hacking of government website is not foreign either to First World country in the likes of United States when “Anonymous” tried to corrupt the government data. This scenario is not only to theft Diplomatic Top Secret, it includes illicit recording and copying of personal data which suspects may use for illegal identity theft. If government site hacking is present in a protected First World data system then how would our government halt and protect such private data.

Moreover; Civil Code provides that “Every person shall respect the dignity, personality, privacy and peace of mind of his neighbours and other persons.” “Declared that the right of privacy is not absolute where there is an overriding compelling state interest. Employing the rational basis relationship test, as laid down in Morfe vs Mutuc, there is no infringement of the individual’s right to privacy as the requirement to disclose information is for a valid purpose.”8 While, 1987 Philippine Constitution provides for the following Bill of Rights:
“Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. 
Section 3.
1.      The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law.
2.      Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.”
Available legal remedy against violation of Right of Privacy:

1.      Administrative – People vs Raquero, GR No. 186529, August 3, 2010

“It is a well settled rule that the findings of fact of quasi-judicial agencies like CSC are accorded not only respect but even finality if such findings are supported by substantial evidence. Substantial evidence is such amount of relevant evidence which a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion, even if other equally reasonable minds might conceivably opine themselves.

To establish a violation of his right under the 4th Amendment, Simons must first prove that he had a legitimate expectation of privacy in the place searched or the item seized. And, in order to prove a legitimate expectation of privacy, Simons must show that his subjective expectation of privacy is one that society is prepared to accept as objectively reasonable.”

On the other hand:

Alejano vs Cabuay, GR No. 160792, August 25, 2005 distinguished the privacy rights enjoyed by the convicted inmates and pre-trial detainees: “American jurisprudence initially make a distinction between the privacy rights enjoyed by convicted inmates and pre-trial detainees. The case of Palmigiano vs Travisono recognized that pre-trial detainees, unlike convicted prisoners, enjoy a limited right of privacy of communication. Censorship of pre-trial detainees’ mail addressed to public officials, courts and counsel was held impermissible. While incoming mail may be inspected for contraband and read in certain instances, outgoing mail of pre-trial detainees could not be inspected or read at all.”

2.      Writ of Habeas Data

Gamboa vs Chan, GR No. 193636, July 24, 2012 provides that:

“The writ of habeas data is a remedy available to any person whose right to privacy in life, liberty or security is violated or threatened by an unlawful act or omission of a public official or employee, or of a private individual or entity in the gathering, collecting or storing of data information regarding the person, family, home and correspondence of the aggrieved party.

It must be emphasized that in order for the privilege of the writ be granted, there must exist a nexus between the right of privacy on the one hand, and the right to life, liberty or security on the other.”  

3          GR No. 193636
4          Ibid.
8          Gamboa vs Chan, GR No. 193636, 2012

Sunday, 27 April 2014


你好! 我觉得 今世界有重要 我们图书别得说话 譬如说 中文,韩国语, 和西班牙语。见在 有很多美国人会说普通话 。

问题: 那你明白为怎么?
答案: 当然,世界有一点而换了。
所以 我也是大算学习汉语。 汉语没容易。 我开始图书的时候,告诉你很困难读那么拼音。 


我的老师有非常好,他教我们有努力 但是 他需要去了伦敦 大学。 对, 陈老师有聪明的人。 

好的! 我想去外面 吃米饭 然后 冰淇淋 是 因为 天气太热! 


那你有问题,送我在 好吗?